Multi-particulate Drug Delivery  Systems of Fenofibric Acid: Optimization of Formulation Using Statistical Experimental Design


Bala Vishnu Priya Mukkala1*, Murthy T.E.G.K2, Prameela Rani Avula3 

1Formulation research and development, RA Chem Pharma Ltd, Hyderabad-500076, Telangana, India

2Department of pharmaceutics, Bapatla College of Pharmacy, Bapatla, Guntur-522101, Andhra Pradesh, India

3Department of pharmaceutics, Acharya Nagajuna University, Guntur-522510, Andhra Pradesh, India


The objective of the present research work was to develop a multi-particulate modified release system of Fenofibric acid using Wurster (Bottom spray fluid bed coating) process. Impact of various formulation variables was assessed by using statistical interpretation such as ANOVA. A 33 (three factor, three level) face centered central composite design was employed to study the effect of independent variables (concentration of ER Polymer, plasticizer and pore former), on dependent variables (drug release at 2.5th h & 6th h). Optimization of the formulation variables was done by fitting experimental data to the software program (Design Expert). The design space for formulation variables was developed. Fabricated pellets were characterized for various physico-chemical parameters. In vitro release data of the optimized formulation was fitted into various kinetic equations. The optimized formulation showed a desired  drug release at both 2.5th h and 6th h as 17.5 ± 2.28% & 87.1 ± 0.75% respectively. The drug release from the capsules followed first order kinetics and controlled by non fickian transport. The information acquired in this study recommends that the multi-particulates of Fenofibric acid can be effectively intended to give a delayed  release of Fenofibric acid and thus enhanced bioavailability.


Evaluation of the Mycochemical and Proximate Composition of Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus VAR Florida, (MONT) Singer. and P. pulmonarius (FR) QUEL) Grown on Bark of Gmelina arborea Roxb.,Straw of Saccharum officinarum L.and Pods of Delonix regia (BOJ. Ex Hook.) RAF


Okwulehie I. C.1, Oti, V. O.1, Ikechukwu G. C.2*

1Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P. M. B 7267 Umuahia Abia State, Nigeria

2Department of Biochemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P. M. B 7267 Umuahia Abia State, Nigeria


Mushrooms are fungal fruit-bodies which have over successive years served as suitable source of protein, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins. The fruit-bodies derive their nutrients from varieties of substrates including agro-wastes. This study was conducted to evaluate the potentials of using the pods of Delonix regia, straws of Saccharum officinarum and bark of Gmelina arborea in the production of nutritionally-rich edible oyster mushrooms, Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus pulmonarius. The experiment was carried out in three replicates in the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. The results of the investigations were analysed using Analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the means were separated using Least Significant Different (LSD) tool. The result of the myco-chemical analysis shows that fruit-bodies of P. ostreatus var florida, produced in Saccharum officinale straw, yielded the higher alkaloids (3.93±0.010g/100g) than those produced in Gmelina+Delonix (3.84±0.025g/100g) and S. officinale+D. regia , (3.77±0.03g/100g). The trend was the same with Flavonoids, tannins, saponins and phenols from S. officinale, G. aborea + D. regia and S. officinale + D. regia, and D. regia. Pleurotus pulmonarius from the substrates contained low concentration of alkaloids but higher concentration of flavonoids, tannins, saponins and phenols. Generally the substrates yielded fruit-bodies that are rich in protein. However those from S. officinale + D. regia appeared richer in protein (28.44±0.03g/100g). The substrates showed encouraging potentials for use in the production of nutritionally-rich edible P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius, with S. officinale + D. regia standing out as a more likely preferred substrates. There appears to be a synergism between the substrates of S. officinale and D. regia, since the mean of their individual performance is less than their performance when combined.


Study on Antimicrobial Potential of Selected Non-antibiotics and its Interaction with Conventional Antibiotics


Michael Hadera1, Selam Mehari1, N. Saleem Basha1*, Nebyu D. Amha1 and Yacob Berhane2

1Pharmaceutics Unit, School of Pharmacy, Asmara College of Health Sciences, Asmara, P.O Box.8566, Eritrea, North East Africa

2Clinical Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Health Professions, Asmara College of Health Sciences, Asmara, P.O Box.8566, Eritrea,     North East Africa


The escalating levels of antimicrobial drug resistance render it indispensable to explore newer drugs with lesser degrees of toxicity and with fewer chances of developing resistance. Various studies on the discovery of novel antimicrobials have found different degrees of antimicrobial activity in commonly used medicines with diverse pharmacological actions i.e., non-antibiotics. The present work aimed to describe qualitatively and quantitatively in vitro antimicrobial activity of selected non-antibiotic drugs i.e., Acetyl salicylic acid, Methyldopa, Propranolol and Fluoxetine alone and in combination with three conventional antimicrobial drugs i.e., Ciprofloxacin, Benzyl penicillin, and Fluconazole against three standard test microorganisms, i.e., E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans. Agar well diffusion method was used for testing antimicrobial sensitivity, while the drug interaction was estimated using fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC index) obtained from checkerboard broth dilution method.  All the four non-antibiotics tested for antimicrobial activity showed activity against at least one tested microorganism, whereas fluoxetine showed antimicrobial activity against all tested organisms. Combined effect of fluconazole + fluoxetine and fluconazole + propranolol against C. albicans showed synergistic activity based on the FICindex value obtained i.e., 0.25 and 0.1875, respectively. Based on the results, study suggests that fluoxetine among the other non-antibiotics has a potential for being developed into an effective antimicrobial agent. However, the study needs to be extended in the future to determine the in vivo antimicrobial activity.


Effect of Extraction Solvents on Bioactive Compounds and Antimicrobial Activities of Two Varieties of Garcinia kola (heckel)OBOWO 02 (soft and less bitter) and OBOWO 03 (Hard and Very Bitter)


Okwulehie I. C*., Alozie V. C., Ikechukwu G. C., Nwokeocha O. W. 

Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, PMB-7267, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria


The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the extracts obtained using the different solvents - water, acetone, methanol and ethanol on the phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of Garcinia kola (Obowo 20 and 03). The following 4 bacterial isolates were used for the investigation of the antimicrobialactivities and and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts. The phytochemical analysis of each of the extract indicated the presence of tannin, saponin, flavonoid, Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), alkaloid, carotenoid, anthocyanin and phenol. The extracts exhibited significant inhibitory action against S. aureus, S. typhi, P. aeruginosaand E. coli. The result revealed that methanol extract exerted the highest significant activities (P> 0.05) against all the tested organisms at the various treatment regimes with S. aureus having a wider zone of inhibition followed by E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. typhiwith the lowest inhibitory zones. The MIC of the methanol extract against the organisms was 12.5, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/ml respectively. The aqueous extract showed the least significant activity against S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. typhi with MICs of 25, 25, 25 and 50mg/ml respectively.


Evaluation of Wound Healing Activity and Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Thespesia populnea Bark Extracts


Manisha Kothari*, D. K. Jain

SSL Jain PG College, Vidisha (MP)-464001, India


The leaves and bark of Thespesia populnea are used for the treatment of fracture wounds and as an antiinflammatory poultice applied to ulcers and boils, as a folk medicine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the wound healing activity and phytochemical screening of Thespesia populnea barks extract. The petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extract prepared. All the extracts were screened for preliminary phytochemical to determine the nature of secondary metabolite present in bark. Excision wound models were used to evaluate the wound healing activity of extract. The 250 mg and 500 mg of petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extract were individually incorporated with 100 g of Carbopol 940 to get 2.5% and 5% (w/w) gel. Preliminary phytochemical investigations of the extracts of barks of Thespesia populnearevealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, glycosides, fats and carbohydrates. The order of wound healing activity of various extract were Ethanol extract > Aqueous extract > Acetone extract > Chloroform extract > Petroleum ether extract. The ethanol extracts of exhibited maximum wound healing activity compared to other extracts. The findings could justify, at least partially, the inclusion of this plant in the management of wound healing in folk medicine.


Evaluation of Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Tridax procumbens Extract


Dr Pooja Singh1*, Dr Kirti Jain2, Dr Swati Khare3, Dr Padma Shrivastav1

1Govt. PG College, BHEL, Bhopal (M.P.)-462016, India

2Govt. Science and Commerce College, Benazir, Bhopal (M.P.)-462001, India

3Maharani Laxmibai, Govt Girls PG Autonomous College, Bhopal (M.P.)-462016, India


Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of diverse disease states. The polyphenol and flavonoids are used for the treatment of various diseases triggered by oxidative stress. Tridax procumbens have been used as indigenous medicine for a variety of ailments. In the present study, it was planned to investigate the phytochemical and in vitro antioxidant activity of the ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of Tridax procumbens leaves. The ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of Tridax procumbens leaves were prepared and performed its phytochemical analysis. The in vitro antioxidant activity namely DPPH, total polyphenol content, total flavonol content and reducing power assay were performed. The qualitative chemical test exhibited the presence of alkaloids, polyphenol, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, saponin and glycoside in ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of Tridax procumbens. The findings of in vitro antioxidant activity demonstrated that ethanol extracts expressed higher antioxidant activity compared to methanol and aqueous extract. These results are an indication of antioxidant potential of the extracts and may be responsible for some of the therapeutic uses of Tridax procumbens


Pharmacognostic and Physicochemical Standardization of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa Seeds


Arif Ahmad Rather*, Kirti Jain

Department of Botany, Govt. Science and Commerce College, Benazeer, Bhopal (M.P.)-462001, India


Standardization is the code of conduct in order to ensure the proper identification, authentication and also for the standardization of crude herbal drugs. The quality of herbal drugs is the sum of all factors which contribute directly or indirectly to the safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the product. Towards authentication and quality assurance of medicinal plants, pharmacognostic, physicochemical studies of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa seeds were performed. The macroscopic and physicochemical parameters like ash value, loss on drying, foaming index, swelling index, extractive values and fluorescence analysis were carried out as per WHO guidelines. The findings of Pharmacognostic and physicochemical studies can be used as markers in the identification and standardization of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa seeds as a herbal remedy and also towards monograph development on the plant. Further it assists in validating this raw material for use in herbal formulations in the upcoming era.


Glimpses of FDA Approved Anti - Neoplastic Drugs 2016 


K. Sai Samhitha, C. Vinodhini*,  K. Chitra

Department of Quality Assurance, Facultyof Pharmacy, Sri Ramachandra University, ChennaI 600116, India


The article is all about the anti – cancer drugs approved by the FDA for treating different forms of cancers. Article gives complete idea about each drug which was approved by FDA, which includes the use, route of administration, the dosing & the side effects. The article also gives brief about the pharmacokinetics & pharmacodynamics of the drugs.


Risk Factors, Management and Other Correlates of Peptic Ulcer Disease in a University Community in South-South Nigeria


Eniojukan JF1*, Okonkwo OC2 and Adje UD2

1Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Niger Delta University, PMB 071, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

2Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration, Delta State University, PMB 1, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria


The most common causes of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) are Helicobacter pylori infection and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).Treatment choices include standard triple therapy. This study evaluated the patterns of prevalence, life-style risk factors and correlates of management of PUD among Staff and Students of Delta State University, Abraka Campus, Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was initiated among 450 willing staff and student respondents. A total of 126 respondents that had been diagnosed for PUD were further evaluated for prevalence and patterns, confounding life-style factors, drug therapy and other correlates of PUD management by using self-designed, pre-tested questionnaires that addressed the objectives of the study. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version16.0 (SPSS Inc. Chicago Illinois). Duodenal Ulcer (DU) had a higher prevalence than Gastric Ulcer (GU) in a ratio of 1.5:1. The prevalence of GU was higher among Staff, Males and those older than 35 years; DU had a higher prevalence among the Students, Females and 16-35 yrs age group. The greatest life-style risk factors identified were consumption of NSAIDs, Tobacco and Alcohol. Regarding drug treatment, over 90% of drugs prescribed were antibiotics; nearly all respondents claimed to experience side-effects which included Diarrhea, Abdominal Pain and Headache; nearly all respondents often adhered to instructions to avoid Alcohol. In this population, PUD prevalence and pattern was structured along gender and age. There were issues with life-styles which could have contributed to the pathophysiology of PUD. Patients experienced some side-effects that affected adherence to instructions. Management seemed appropriate with the use of triple therapies. However, there is still a dire need for strategic health education on PUD risk factors and self-care practices.


Evaluation of Calcium Concentration of Medicinal Plants Incorporating in Dashmool by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy


Yogita Choudhary, Abhishek Saxena*, Yatendra Kumar, Sagar Kumar, Vijay Pratap 

Department of Pharmacy, Brahmanand Group of Institution, Bulanshahr (UP), India


Ayurveda is one of the traditional medicinal systems of Indian. The philosophy behind Ayurveda is preventing unnecessary suffering and living a long healthy life. Dashmool is Ayurvedic preparation containing various parts of ten medicinal plants. The medicinal plants used in Dashmool are collected from different parts of India and variation in elemental concentration has been observed. The present study was aimed to determine the level of Calcium of Aegle marmelos (root), Clerodendrum phlomidis (root), Desmodium gangeticum (root), Stereospermum suavaveolens (Stem bark), Oroxylum indicum (Stem bark), Gmelina arborea (stem bark), Solanum xanthocarpum (root), Solanum indicum (stem bark), Tribulus terrestris (root) and Uraria picta (leaves) used for the formulation of Dashmool by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The findings demonstrated that the concentration of Calcium in selected medicinal plants was under the prescribed limits. Such information could be helpful in standardization of Dashmool and imparts better therapeutic efficacy.     


High-performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Quantification of Gallic Acid in Simhanada Guggulu


Shilpa Jain1, Neha Jain2*, Mohan Lal Kori2, Abhishek Kumar Jain3

1Sagar Institute of Pharmaceutical sciences, Sagar, 470002, M. P., India,

2Vedica College of B. Pharmacy, R.K.D.F. University, Bhopal, 462037, M.P., India

3Sagar Institute of Research Technology & Science – Pharmacy, Bhopal, 462037, M.P., India


Marker compounds quantification with new analytical tools and methods is necessary for establishing the authenticity and usage of Ayurvedic or herbal formulations. Simhanada guggulu or guggul is one of the supportive Ayurvedic medicines for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and used in various disorders in Ayurveda such as limping, anemia, gout, disease of skin, cough, abdominal lump, pain digestive impairment. Simhanada guggulu is an Ayurvedic herbal formulation made by some selected herbs. The rejuvenating and tonic properties of ‘Simhanada guggulu’ are considered majorly due to their antioxidant principles, which in turn is due to the presence of phenolic compounds. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for quantitative determination of the gallic acid in ‘Simhanada guggulu’. The acidic mobile phase used in RP18 column which enabled efficient separation of gallic acid. A binary gradient with mobile phase containing solvent A (Acetonitrile) and solvent B (water: 0.3% O-Phosphoric Acid) was used for analysis. Elution was carried out at flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Pure gallic acid Rt was found to be 5.29 min and peak with same Rt was also observed in prepared formulation. Gallic acid content of prepared formulation was found to be 2.28 %. The developed HPLC-UV method is simple, rapid and help as tool for the standardization of Simhanda guggulu.