Toxicological Profile of Carbamazepine and Levetiracetam on Some Biochemical and Haematological Parameters in Rats


Theophine Chinwuba Akunne1, Sunday N. Okafor2*, Zellinjo Igweze3, Chiamaka N. Njoku3, Oluwatoyin O. Ojapinwa3

1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

2Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

3Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Madonna University, 510242 Elele, Rivers State, Nigeria


The prolonged usage of antiepileptic drugs has necessitated the need to study their toxicological profiles using in experimental animals. The toxicological effects of carbamazepine (CBZ) and levetiracetam (LEV) on some biochemical and haematological parameters were evaluated in rats. Haematological parameters evaluated include packed cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb) and white blood cell (WBC), while some biochemical parameters studied were liver enzyme tests such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lipid profiles tests such as total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL). In addition, the body weight and morphological assessment of the vital body organs were determined. Results showed that CBZ and LEV did not significantly affect the haematological parameters. Animals treated with CBZ showed a significant increase in TC and HDL levels at 400 and 1000 mg/kg doses. There was no significant increase in the TC, HDL, LDL and TG in rats treated with LEV. CBZ and LEV treated animals at the doses of 400 and 1000 mg/kg showed a significant increase in body weights from the 6th day after commencement of treatment. There was also a significant increase in the weights of the liver, kidney and heart of the animals treated with CBZ and LEV. The colour and texture of the organs did not change. However, no appreciable weight increase was observed with the lung. 


Evaluation of H. pylori - Eradication Triple Therapy in Iraqi Peptic Ulcer Patients according to ABO Phenotypes: a New Study


Rana Hussein Kutaif1,  Manal Khalid Abdulridha2Ù­, Yassir Mustafa Kamal3, Akram Ajeel Najeeb4

 1Wasit Health Directorate, Ministry of Health , Wasit-10001, Iraq

2Ù­Departmentof Clinical Pharmacy/College of Pharmacy/Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad-10001, Iraq

3Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology/College of Pharmacy/ Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad-10001, Iraq

4Consultant gastroenterologist, Baghdad Teaching Hospital,Medical city, Baghdad-10001, Iraq


Infection with H. pylori is an up growing  public health problem that affects approximately 50% of people in industrialized nations, and up to 80% in developing countries. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection had been identified as the main causes of peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Blood group A phenotype was associated with gastric ulcer (GU) and gastric carcinoma, while blood group O phenotype found to be associated with duodenal ulcer DU predominantly; however, no explanation for this association was received. This study was conducted to, first, determine the relationship between ABO blood groups and H. pylori infection in peptic ulcer patients, and second, to study the response to the two weeks H. pylori eradication triple therapy in peptic ulcer patients carrying different blood groups. A total of  84 patients who presented  with symptoms of PUD and showed positive endoscopic examination of PUD and evidence of H. pylori infectionby histology and stool antigen test, were divided into four groups according to ABO blood group phenotype. All H. pylori infected patients received standard H. pylori eradication triple therapy for 14 days duration. Patients were followed up by re- endoscopic examination after 2 months of treatment course. The percentage of H. pylori infection in patients with peptic ulcer disease carrying blood group O was higher than other blood group phenotype. In H. pylori-infected peptic ulcer patients, higher incidence of gastric ulcer (GU) was noticed among blood group A carriers, while higher incidence of duodenal ulcer (DU) was found among blood group O carriers when compare with other blood group phenotypes.  Fourteen days triple therapy showed lower eradication rate in H. pylori infected blood group O peptic ulcer patients, while a higher response to the standard H. pylori eradication triple therapy was found among patients with blood group B phenotype.


Cola parchycarpa K. Schum: Chemical Evaluation of Amino Acids, Vitamins and Other Nutritional Factors in Seed, Fruit Mesocarp and Epicarp


Emmanuel E. Essien*, Imaobong I. Udousoro

 Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Uyo-520101, Nigeria


Cola parchycarpa is one of the under-utilized monkey kola plants that yield edible tasty fruits. The amino acids, vitamins, mineral elements, proximate and anti-nutrients composition of the white aril, seed and fruit epicarp were evaluated using standard procedures. The total essential amino acids ranged from 31.84-55.70 g/100 g, predominated in lysine, leucine and cysteine. The fruit pulp and epicarp contained substantial amount of ascorbic acid (6.310 and 6.646 mg/100 g) and tocopherols (7.328 and 5.314 mg/100 g), respectively including vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B9 and K1. Potassium, zinc and manganese were relatively high in the seed while calcium, magnesium and iron dominated in the fruit epicarp. The proximate analysis data of the fruit pulp and epicarp were similar except in protein and lipid content. Anti-nutritional factors (phytate, oxalates, cyanide and tannins) were below permissible limits.  This is the first report on amino acids and detailed vitamins composition of C. parchycarpa. These findings indicate the rich nutritional potential of this tasty fruit and further processing into other value added products would encourage conservation and subversion of its impending extinction.


Screening of Antistress and Anxiolytic Activities of Piper longum Fruits Extract


Nanjappaiah H.M.1,Patil V.P.1,MuchchandiI S.2,Chandrashekar V.M.2,Shivakumar H.1*

1P. G. Dept. of Pharmacology, BLDEAs SSM College of Pharmacy & Research Centre, Vijayapur - 586103, Karnataka, India

2B V Vs H S K College of Pharmacy, Bagalkote - 587101, Karnataka, India


The aim of the study was to investigate adaptogenic and anxiolytic activities of methanol extract of Piper longum fruits at different dose levels (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg) using different experimental animal models. In the present research work antistress activity was assessed by swimming endurance and immobilization stress models, and anxiolytic activity were assessed by elevated plus maze behavior of mice, light dark exploration test in mice and open field apparatus test in rats. In swimming endurance test, the mean time of swimming performance and swimming stress induced biochemical parameters such as serum cortisol, the weights of adrenal glands, ascorbic acid and cortisol levels were recorded in the adrenal gland. There was dose dependent significant increase in swimming performance time observed in mice pretreated with graded doses of the test extracts.  Animals pretreated with test extracts at different dose levels showed significant and dose dependent fall in all the biochemical parameters, as compared to the stress control animals. Treatment with standard and test extracts significantly reversed the stress induced altered hematological parameters, biochemical parameters, organs weight, GSH and LPO levels and neurotransmitters such as dopamine, nor adrenaline and serotonin levels in rat brain In immobilization stress. The test extracts demonstrated the significant increase in time spent and number of entries into open arm in elevated plus maze apparatus test and also increase in time spent and number of entries into lit box was observed in light box exploration test and reduction in time spent and number crossing into the dark compartment observed in animals pretreated with test extract. Pretreatment with test extracts demonstrated dose dependent significant increase in ambulation, rearing and self-grooming and significant decrease in fecal dropping in case of open field test.


Changes in Seedling Growth and Biochemical Contents in Abrus precatorius L. Under Nickel Treatment


Milvee K. Vyas

Department of Biosciences, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Udhna Magdalla Road, Surat, 395007, Gujarat, India


An attempt was made to study the effect of nickel on the growth of Abrus precatorius, a medicinal plant growing in South Gujarat used in Ayurved. The seeds of Abrus precatorius were germinated in petri dishes by 25, 50, 100, 150, 200 ppm nickel sulphate solution for experimental work.  The germination percentage, seedling growth, dry matter yield and changes in biochemical contents of total sugar, protein and pigments were investigated ten days after showing. The study indicates that the lower level of nickel has no adverse effect on germination, seedling growth and biochemical content whereas the higher concentration decreased the same accept the protein. Nickel increased the protein content at lower concentration and has been reducing effect at higher level. 


Detection of Low Birth Weight Newborns by Foot Length as Prox-measure for Birth Weight


Akukwu, D.A.1, Uloneme, G.C.1*, Akukwu B.C2, Alagwu E.A.3

1Anatomy and Neurobiology Department, Imo State University, Owerri-460222, Nigeria.

2Public Health Department; Imo State University, Owerri-460222, Nigeria

3Physiology Department, Imo State University, Owerri-460222, Nigeria  


The majority of births in rural communities in Nigeria take place at home, and lack of weighing facilities makes early and reliable identification of low birth weight babies difficult. One thousand live newborns of gestational ages 28-44 weeks were studied at the Federal Medical Centre,Owerri  Imo State Nigeria to find out the correlation between birth weight and foot length and to detect low birth weight newborns by using foot length measurement as a proxy  measure of birth weight. Further the foot length of newborns was noted within 24 hours of birth. Foot length findings demonstrated that correlation coefficients between foot length and birth weight showed the highest correlation (r=0.93). The birth weight of these 1000 newborns ranges from 850g to 4500g. Results showed that the mean birth weight of newborns was 2931+-464g. The incidence of low birth weight babies was 12.6%. Male births were slightly more preponderant (52.4%) over female (47.6%). Furthermore demonstrated a sensitivity of 70.6%, specificity of 98.5% and positive predictive value of 89.7%  for identifying  low birth  weight newborns. For very low birth weight newborns, the sensitivety, specificity and positive predictive value, all were 100%. Foot length may be considered an alternate parameter to birth weight to detect low birth weight babies, especially in remote areas and pre-terms nursed in incubators. Thus, if implemented on a large scale this simple, low cost technology of foot length measurement can significantly enhance the yield of identification of low birth weight babies born at home and the babies can be managed thereafter accordingly.


Comparative Analysis of the Anticonvulsant activity of Crinum jagus and Solanum indicum in Mice


Ohadoma SC1*, Osuala FN2, Amazu LU1, Iwuji SC3

1Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Imo State University, PMB 2000, Owerri, Nigeria.

2Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Madonna University, PMB 48 OkijaElele, Nigeria

3Department of Physiology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526, Owerri, Nigeria 


There is no known drug that has prevented or cured reoccurrence of epileptic seizures, hence the need to explore and compare natural remedies that are employed in folkloric treatment of convulsion.The aim of the present was to assess comparatively, the anticonvulsant activity of methanol extracts of Crinum jagus and Solanum indicum. The crude methanol extracts of the bulbs and fruits of C. jagus and S. indicum, respectively, obtained by 72 h maceration in methanol. The extracts were evaluated for anticonvulsant activity using mice and electroconvulsive shock equipment (Ugobasile ECT UNIT 7801). Four groups of six animals each were used for each extract. Group I received no extract serving as control in both cases. Groups II, III and IV received varying concentrations (32.50, 25.50; 41.50, 51.50; and 64.50, 112.50 mg/kg) for C. jagus and S. indicum respectively. All medicaments were protective against electrically induced convulsion. C. jagus showed protection after administration of 64.50 mg/kg body weight while S. indicum was at 112.50 mg/kg body weight. The two extracts justified their use in traditional and folkloric setting with the bulb extract of C. jagus possessing greater anticonvulsant effect than the fruit extract of S. indicum.


Evaluation of hematological and Biochemical changes induced by garlic (Allium Satium) in Rats


Azuoma Kosisochukwu E.*, Nnolum Blessing U., Enwelum Henry O. 

Anambra State University, Uli. Physiology Department, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, Anambra State University, Uli, Anambra State- 432103 Nigeria


The effect of Allium sativum on the blood cells, platelet and electrolytes was investigated in twelve (12) wistar rats. The experiment lasted for four weeks excluding one weeks of acclimatization. At the end of the experiment, the animals were starved overnight, anesthetized, and the blood sample collected through the cardiac puncture. Blood was collected into an EDTA and plain bottle for hematological parameters and electrolyte analysis respectively. The evaluated parameters were; Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), White blood cell count  (WBC), Hemoglobin (Hb), platelet count, Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), monocyte, basophil, eosinophil, Packed cell volume (PCV), Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate. The result obtained showed that Allium sativum at a low doses significantly affected white blood cells count (WBC), platelet, monocyte, Basophile, Na+, HCO3 (P<0.05). Other parameters were not significantly affected. It was concluded that consumption of Allium sativum in minimal dose affects the amount of circulating blood cells hence increases body defense. Garlic demonstrated potential benefits by causing the increase in some blood parameters implicated in promoting good health, maintaining blood factors required for body defense and helps maintain electrolyte balance in the rat’s system.


Effects of Aqueous Extract of Piper guineese on Wound Angiogenesis in Male Adult Guinea Pigs


Nzeako H.C1*, Ikeji C. V2, Ezejindu DN2, Emegoakor C.D1, Egwuonwu A.O, Chianakwana G.U, Anokwulu I.O2 

1Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State

 2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria


Wound is a significant burden to healthcare and the discovery of substances with wound healing will be of great help to health practice. The use of plants extract has been found to be useful overtime. This study is aimed at analyzing the effects of aqueous extract of Piper guineese on wound angiogenesis. Eight adult male guinea pigs were used for the study. They were grouped into four groups of two animals each. The groups were designated as A, B, C & D. The Full thickness wound of approximately 4cm2-11cm2 was caused on the dorsolateral region of the animals. Group D served as the control and received normal saline. The experimental groups B, C & D received different doses of drugs as follows: group A received 200mg/kg body weight of extract of Piper guineese, group B received 150mg/kg body weight of extract of Piper guineese while group C received 120/kg body weight of extract of Piper guineese. The wounds were dressed daily throughout the experimental periods. The administration was done orally for fourteen days. Twenty four hours after the last administration, tissue samples were collected for histological studies. The wound contraction was calculated and analyzed using SPSS. Histological result showed that angiogenesis was enhanced in the experimental groups when compared with the control. There was also improved fibroblast migration, reduced epitheliazation and uniform rate of healing evidenced in the statistical analysis. Piper guineese stimulate angiogenesis in a healing wound and promotes fibroblast migration to the wound site thereby aiding healing. 


Radiation Response (Low Dose Gamma Radiation) of Members of the Enterobacteriaceae in Dry Fruiting Bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus and Their Identification Using API 20E System


Nii Korley Kortei1*,George Tawia Odamtten2,MaryObodai3, Michael Wiafe- Kwagyan2

1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Health and Allied Sciences, PMB 31, Ho, Ghana

2Department of Plant and Environmental Biology, College of Basic and Applied Sciences, University of Ghana, P. O. Box LG 55, Legon, Ghana

3Food Microbiology Division, Food Research Institute - Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P. O. Box M20, Accra, Ghana


The effectiveness of using low dose gamma radiation (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 kiloGray) was tested on dry fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus stored in polythene and polypropylene and stored at 28-30 oC up to 12 months for identification of members of Enterobacteriaceae with API 20E test kit (Biomerieux ®, France). Encountered microorganisms of the Control samples (0 kGy) of both packages recorded included Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeroginosa Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marscesens and Enterobacter spp.  There was an observed decrease in bacteria species with increasing dose. However, Klebsiella pneumonia persisted after the application 5 kGy dose in both packaging materials. Health and immuno compromised persons stand a greater health risk after interaction with some of these bacteria spp. Case in point, infection of patients with cystic fibrosis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is known to be lethal over a long period of time. Information on Enterobacteria in the food industry is essential since they are potential food poisoning agents and thus their control is imperative. 


Nutritional Composition and Acute Toxicity Potentials of Archontophoenix tukeri and Adonidia merrilli Kernels


Bassey S. Antia, Emmanuel E. Essien*, Enobong D. Udonkanga

*Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Uyo 520101, Nigeria


Archontophoenix tukeri and Adonidia merrilli are exotic species widely grown in Nigeria as ornamental palms. In this study, the kernels of A. tukeri and A. merrilli were subjected to amino acids, fatty acids, proximate, anti-nutrients and mineral element analyses, in addition to acute toxicity evaluation. Glutamic acid (11.30 and 5.33 g/100 g) and leucine (5.9 and 4.2 g/100 g) were the most abundant essential and non-essential amino acids; the fatty acids profile revealed three major fatty acids: palmitic acid (20.14 and 11.27%), oleic acid (61.83 and 25.78%) and linoleic acid (13.05 and 55.26%); low linolenic acid levels were also observed (Ë‚1%) with 75.87 and 81.98% total unsaturated fatty acids in A. tukeri and A. merrilli respectively. Carbohydrate (85.73% and 90.15%) and oxalate contents (1927.2 and 2072.4 mg/100 g) were relatively high, while low levels of cyanide (12.05 and 65.45 mg/100 g), phytates (6.32 and 2.53 mg/100 g) and tannins (35.36 and 20.16 mg/100 g) were observed. A. tukeri indicated higher Ca, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mg, Mn and Na contents. The anti-nutrient-mineral ratios were computed and compared with critical values. Acute toxicity of A. tukeri and A. merrilli was 866.03 mg/Kg. These palms contain vital nutritional components, and with proper processing could serve as potential products for both human and animal nutrition.