Evaluation Alpinia galanga Essential Oil for  Anti Asthmatic Activity in Animal Models

 

Jyotsna Laksmhi Patil1, Suma US1*, Mamatha MK2 , Priya Shetti2

1KLEU’S college of pharmacy, Belgaum, Karnataka 590016

2Mallige college of pharmacy, Bangalore 560090

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to evaluate antiasthmatic activity of Alpinia galanga essential oil by using various animal models.Essential oil of Alpinia galanga was procured from GR herbals, Indore & Chemical analysis was carried out through GC-MS. In present study investigated the contraction inhibition activity on tracheal chain using histamine (10 μg/ml). For in vivo studies PCD time was observed in 0.1% histamine exposed guinea pigs. The present findings demonstrated significantly decrease the airway inflammation induced by ovalbumin. Hence the present study verified that A.galanga essential oil bearing antihistaminic, anti-inflammatory effect.

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF     

Chemical Constituents From the Aerial Roots of Ficus benghalensis L.,  Leaves of Nyctanthes  arbor-tristis  L. and Roots of Verbesina encelioides  (Cav.) Benth. et Hook. f.

 

Shahnaz Sultana1,2, Mohammed Ali1*, Showkat Rassol Mir1

1Phytochemistry Research Laboratory, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi - 110 062, India 

2Present address: College of Pharmacy, Jazan University, Jazan- 45142, Saudi  Arabia  

Abstract

Ficus benghalensis L. (Moraceae) is anative to tropical Asia. Its aerial roots are styptic and taken to alleviate biliousness, dysentery, liver inflammation, jaundice, spermatorrhoea, syphilis and obstinate vomiting.   Nyctanthes arbor-tristis  L. (Oleaceae)  is distributed in the  eastern  Asia including  India, Nepal, Pakistan, Thailand and  Indonesia. Its  leaves are  used to treat  acidity,  asthma,  bronchitis, cough,  dyspepsia,  fevers, hypertension,  malaria, menstrual cramps, piles,  rheumatism,  sciatica, snake bites, strangury and to  expel intestinal worms. Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) Benth. et Hook. f. (Asteraceae) is a native to southeastern North America and one of the most common weeds in northern India after the rainy season. Its roots are used to cure bladder inflammation and also as a blood purifier.  The air-dried plant parts were exhaustively extracted with methanol individually in a Soxhlet apparatus. The concentrated methanol extracts were adsorbed on silica gel for column and chromatographed over silica gel column separately. The columns were eluted with petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol successively to isolate the phytoconstituents. Phytochemical investigation of the aerial roots of F.  benghalensis afforded  n-tritriacontan-10-one (1),  30-lauryloxy- urs-12-en-3β-olyl butyrate (30-lauryloxy-α-amyrin 3-butyrate, 2) and  urs-12-en-23,6α-olide 3β-olyl palmitate (3-palmityl α-amyrin-23,6α-olide, 3). The leaves of N.  arbor-tristis  furnished two vanillyl glycosidic disters characterized as oleiyl-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2a→1b)-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-2b-vanillyl-4b-caproate (oleiyl-O-α-D-dixylosyl vanillyl caproate, 4) and oleiyl-O-α-D-arabinopyranosyl-(2a→1b)-O-α-D-arabinopyranosyl--(2b→1c)-O-α-D-arabinopyranosyl--(2c→1d)-O-α-D-arabinopyranosyl-2d-vanillyl-4d-caproate (oleiyl-O- α-D-tetra-arabinosyl vanillyl  caproate, 5). The roots of V.  encelioides produced  tetracosan-1-oyl   1-tetradecanoate (lignoceryl   myristate,  6), β-amyrin palmitate  (7), urs-12-en-3β-olyl oleate (β-amyrin oleate,  8) and  β-amyrin stearate (9). The structures of these phytoconstituents have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. 

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF     

Nyctanthes arbortristis an Important Medicinal Plant of Madhya Pradesh State - A Review 

 

Ruchita Shrivastava1*, Ajay Kumar Bharadwaj2

1Deptt. Of Biotechnology, Institute for Excellence in higher education, Bhopal- 462016, MP, India

2N.M.B. Govt. College, Hoshangabad- 461001, MP, India  

Abstract

Medicinal plants are being widely used either as single drug or in combination for health care system. Nyctanthes arbortristis commonly known as night jasmine or Harshringar is an important medicinal plant mainly used in Ayurveda. It is one of the oldest system of medicines uses plants and their extracts for the treatment and management of various diseases. It has been reported as useful in sciatica, arthritis, fever, asthma, diabetes, cancer, etc. Plants contain various phytoconstituents belonging to the categories of glycosides, alkaloids, essential oils, tannins etc. Several studies are being carried towards its activities like antibacterial, antifungal, immunomodulatory, antipyretic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. With all these potential benefits, this review is carried out to explore the hidden potential and its uses. This review explores the published scientific literature to compile all the traditional and scientific data of Nyctanthes arbortristis.

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF     

Voyage into Curcumin Embedded Delivery Systems of Natural Polymers to Ameliorate Solubility and Bioavailability Limitations

 

Roopa G1, Roopa Karki2, Jayanthi C1*, Mukunthan S1, Hanumanthachar Joshi1, Goli Divakar2

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Sarada Vilas College of Pharmacy, Mysore, Karnataka, India

2Department of Pharmaceutics, Acharya and BM Reddy College of Pharmacy, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

Abstract

The turmeric (Curcuma longa) plant, a perennial herb of the ginger family, is an agronomic crop in south and southeast tropical Asia. The rhizome is coined as the most useful part of the plant and a staple in all cooking and treatment of medicinal purposes include antioxidant, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic and anti-inflammatory. It has a wide array of affinity to biological proteins and inhibits various kinases. Curcumin modulates the activity of several transcription factors, regulates the functioning of inflammatory enzymes, cytokines, adhesion molecules, and apoptic proteins. Recent preclinical and animal studies revealed the anti-proliferative, anti-invasive and antiangiogenic activity5,6. Clinically, Curcumin is proven to be safe while administering at larger doses, but due to poor aqueous solubility, quick systemic elimination, scanty tissue absorption and degradation at alkaline pH, which restrains its bioavailability, following strategies are used to enhance the bioavailability: (i) adjuvants like piperine which interferes with glucuronidation, (ii) liposomal curcumin, (iii) nanoparticles, (iv) Curcumin phospholipid complex and (v) structural analogues of curcumin. (VI) Micronisation and nanonisation (VII) self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS), (vii) cyclodextrin inclusions, (IX) solid dispersions (X) Nanoemulsions, nanospheres, nanobeads, nanofibres7. The intention of this comprehension is to present a retrospective and prospective gist of applications of innovative delivery systems of Curcumin employed by the researchers to optimize Curcumin delivery using natural polymers with the objective of enhancing solubility and bioavailability, which might revolutionize the therapy of challenging chronic disorders of mankind.

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF      XML 

Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Causes and Prevention

 

Noha E. Ibrahim1, Wael M. Aboulthana2* and Ram Kumar Sahu3

1Microbial Biotechnology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Centre, 33 Bohouth St., P.O. 12622, Dokki, Giza, Egypt (Affiliation ID: 60014618)

2Biochemistry Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Centre, 33 Bohouth St., P.O. 12622, Dokki, Giza, Egypt (Affiliation ID: 60014618)

3University College of Pharmacy, Pt. Deendayal Upadhyay Memorial Health Sciences and Ayush University of Chhattisgarh, Raipur (C.G.), India

Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the liver and occurs predominantly in patients with underlying chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. It is considered as the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide with over 500,000 people affected. Incidence of the HCC is highest in Asia and Africa, where the endemic high prevalence of hepatitis B and C strongly predisposes to development of the chronic liver disease and subsequent development of HCC. In most cases, the cause of liver cancer is long-term damage and scarring of the liver cirrhosis that may be caused by viral infections (Virus B or C) or non-viral causes such as non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), autoimmune diseases, inflammation of the liver (chronic), obesity, diabetes, alcohol consumption, smoking, iron overload in the body (hemochromatosis) and the exposure to aflatoxin. The recent studies concluded that vaccination and the antiviral treatment are the most important ways for the HCC prevention.

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF      XML 

Rhizobacteria Suppress Fusarium wilt and Early Blight Diseases in Tomato Grown with Organic Fertilizers

 

Adedire O. M.1*, Fajobi A. K.1, Ibitoye D. O.1, Osesusi A. O.2, Pitan A. A.3

1Federal College of Agriculture, P.M.B 5029 Ibadan, Oyo, Nigeria

2Ekiti State University, P.M.B 5363 Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti, Nigeria

3National Horticultural research Institute, P.M.B 5432 Idi-ishin, Oyo, Nigeria

Abstract

Due to the established toxic effects of agrochemical accumulation in humans, there is an increasing demand for organic agricultural production in Nigeria. The production of highly nutritious and daily consumed crops like tomato through organic farming (using biosupplements) would go a long way in reducing the risks associated with the consumption of inorganic pesticides and fertilizers. In order to investigate the effects of rhizobacterial biosupplement on the resistance and yield of tomato grown with organic fertilizers, the predominant rhizosphere bacteria associated with healthy tomato isolated in this study (Bacillus thuringiensis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus macerans and Bacillus cereus) were added as a consortium to improve the availability of organic nutrients to plants. Performance measures including the numbers of fruit, branches, leaves, plant height, days to first flowering and days to 50% flowering at 20.00, 17.67, 176.33, 73.33 cm, 70.43 and 78.00 were all better (higher or lower) in treated tomato plants than untreated set. A significant reduction in percentage prevalence was recorded for Fusarium wilt, as well as Early blight diseases on treated plants (seed treatment with rhizobacterial consortium) compared to plants grown from untreated seeds. However, seed treatment appeared to be less effective in the treatment of Bacterial wilt disease of tomato, with percentage prevalence of 41.70 and 42.90 recorded for treated and untreated plants at nine weeks after planting respectively. It could be concluded that the application of rhizobacterial consortium (as seed treatment) improved the yield and resistance of tomato to Fusarium wilt and Early blight diseases caused by Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria solani respectively.

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF      XML 

Physio-chemical properties and Antimicrobial Activity of Triphala Masi

 

Dr. Riya Sinha*, Dr. Jeevesh K.B.

Department of Rasashastra & Bhaishajya Kalpana, Ramakrishna Ayurvedic Medical College, Hospital and Research Center, Bengaluru-560064, Karnataka, India

Abstract

Triphala is a traditional Ayurvedic herbal formulation consisting of the dried fruits of three medicinal plants Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Phyllanthus embelica. Triphalais also main ingredient of Triphala Masi and practiced very less which is unexplored. In consideration of all above the present study was planned to make an attempt to evaluate the pharmaceutical analysis and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of Triphala Masi. The Triphala Masi was prepared by heating at 450 °C for 150 min. The physical values like total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, loss on drying, pH value and loss on drying were determined. The organoleptic characters of prepared Triphala Masi were studied. The prepared Masi were black colour with charcoal like taste and burnt smell. Total ash, Acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and loss on drying of Triphala Masi fulfill the standards criteria. pH value suggested to be acidic for Triphala Masi. Triphala Masi exhibited a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and inhibited the growth of S. aureus and E. coli. The above findings of pharmaceutical, analytical profile and antimicrobial study of Triphala Masi indicates that the formulation was stable and has effective antibacterial activity. 

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF      XML 

Evaluation of Physio-chemical and Antipyretic activity of Ananda Bhairava Rasa

 

Evaluation of Physio-chemical and Antipyretic activity of Ananda Bhairava Rasa

Dr. Varsha N*, Dr. Jeevesh K.B.

Abstract

Ayurveda is one of the systems of medicine in the world. Among so many systems of medicine it has its own identities. Ananda Bhairava Rasa is one such formulation explained in the Classical text Sidha Prayoga Latika found to be effective in Jwara. The aim of the present study was to develop Ananda Bhairava Rasa and evaluates its physicochemical and antipyretic activity. Raw materials were screened and collected. Preparation of Ananda Bhairava Rasa as per the Classical text Sidha Prayoga Latika was done. The physico-chemical properties namely Hardness, uniform weight, friability, losson drying, water soluble extractive value, alcholo soluble extractive value, moisture content, pH, total ash, acid soluble ash and disintegration time of Ananda Bhairava Rasa were determined. The antipyretic activity of Ananda Bhairava Rasa vatis were evaluated against brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia on Albino rats. The findings of physico-chemical properties of Ananda Bhairava Rasa were under normal value. The Ananda Bhairava Rasa vatis demonstrated significant antipyretic activity. 

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF      XML 

An Overview on the Advances of Zingiber zerumbet

 

Arijit Chaudhuri, SC Sharma, Foziya Khan                                 

Department of  Pharmacology, Bhupal Noble’s University, Udaipur-313001, Rajasthan, India

Abstract

Zingiber zerumbet traditionally Karpoori Haridraa known to the India as “Bitter Ginger,” is a perennial herb found in many tropical and sub-tropical countries, including India. The Z. zerumbet, rhizomes particularly, have been daily life used as a various  food flavouring agent and appetizer in various Indian` cuisines while the rhizomes extracts have been used in Indian villagers folk medicine to treat various types of diseases (e.g., inflammatory- and pain-mediated diseases, worm infestation and diarrhoea, diabetes). This plant carried out using different in vivo and in vitro bioassays of biological evaluation. The various active pharmacological component of Z. zerumbet rhizomes most widely studied is zerumbone. This paper presents mainly the morphology, folk uses, chemistry, and pharmacology of this medicinal plant.

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF      XML 

Comparative Studies on Phytochemical Analysis of Callus and Wild Plants of Phyllanthus niruri with Special Reference to Phyllanthin

 

Aarti Patel1*, Pratibha Singh1, Shagufta Khan2 

1Sarojini Naidu Govt Girls PG Autonomous College, Bhopal (M.P.)-462016, India

2GrowTips Biotech, Saket Nagar, Bhopal (MP)- 462024, India

Abstract

The main objective of the present study was to induce callus form nodal explants of Phyllanthus niruri and, compared the quantification of Phyllanthin in callus and naturally propagated Phyllanthus niruri. For callus initiation, different sterile plant parts were transferred on MS medium supplemented with auxins either alone like 0.5-2.0 mg/l  2- 4 D or with varied concentration and combinations of cytokinins like 0.5 mg/l BAP and 0.5 mg/l KN. The petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus niruri plant and callus were prepared and performed its phytochemical analysis. The total flavonoids and polyphenol were investigated to quantify the presence of polyphenol compounds in callus extract and plant extract. The quantification of Phyllanthin in plant extract and callus extract were performed by HPLC. Maximum callus (90.5%) induction from stem/leaf segments on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l 2,4-D with 0.5 mg/l  BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) within 25 days which was fragile in morphology. Preliminary phytochemical revealed the presence of various secondary metabolites in different extract of plant. The concentrations of flavonoids polyphenol in ethanol extract of callus were higher compared to crude plant extract. Further  Phyllanthin content in callus was found to be significantly increased in response to field grown plants.

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF      XML 

Anti- Inflammatory and Diuretic Activities of Ethanolic Extracts Of Smilax anceps Wild

 

Osuagwu G. G. E*., Osuagwu A. N., Udogu F. O., Ukoji N. A.

Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P.M.B. 7267 Umuahia, Postal code: 40401109, Abia State, Nigeria

Abstract

The anti- inflammatory and diuretic activities of ethanolic extracts of Smilax anceps Wild was studied. Leaves of the plant were collected from the premises of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike Umuahia. The leaves were sun-dried for eight days, ground and macerated in 300ml of ethanol and left to stand for 24 hours. The solution was thereafter filtered using No 1 Whatman filter paper and allowed to evaporate to dryness, to obtain the extract used for the study. Twenty adult rats were used for this investigation. They were allowed to acclimatize to the environment for two weeks. The extracts were administered to the rats at doses of 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. The administration was by intra-peritoneal during the diuretic test and orally during anti-inflammatory test. For the anti-inflammatory test, aspirin was used as positive control and normal saline as negative control. In the diuretic test, four standard drugs (Furosemide, Hydrochlorothiazide, Spironolacetone and Acetazolamide) and normal saline served as control. The results obtained indicate that the plant extracts significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the inflammation of the hind paws of the rats showing that the extracts had an anti-inflammatory effect. The rate of inhibition increased with increase in the concentration of the extracts. The plant extracts also significantly (P<0.05) increased the volume of urine produced by the rats, indicating that the leaves had diuretic effect. Higher volumes of urine were produced as the concentration of the extracts increased. The results obtained showed that ethanolic leaf extracts of Smilax anceps have potential anti-inflammatory and diuretic properties, hence could be utilized in the treatment of inflammation and diuretic problems.

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF      XML 

Age-related Changes in the Expression of Heat Shock Protein 70 and 90 on the Gastric Mucosa During Gastric Ulcer Healing

 

Ajayi Ayodeji Folorunsho1, Aniviye Blessing Oluwafunke1, Kehinde Busuyi David2, Akintola Adebola Olayemi3

1Department of Physiology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

2Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomosho, Nigeria

3Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

Abstract

Heat shock proteins 70 and 90 (HSP-70 and HSP-90) are associated with gastroprotective and ulcer healing potentials. Reports in literatures have shown that age affects gastric ulcer healing, but the role of these heat shock proteins in relation to age has not been fully understood. This study, therefore, investigated changes in the expression of HSP-70 and HSP-90 in the gastric mucosa of 3, 6 and 18-month old rats during healing of Acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. Male Wister rats (aged 3, 6 and 18 months) were divided into 3 groups according to their ages. Acetic acid ulcer model was used for this study. Ulcer area, oxidative stress, antioxidant markers, HSP-70 and HSP-90 concentration by ELISA and expression by immunohistochemistry was assessed. Results obtained indicate the highest percentage area healed on day 14 in 3 months old rats (100%), while percentage healing for 6 and 18 months old rats was 89.00% and 55.29%, respectively. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was directly proportional to age, while antioxidant enzyme (Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)) activities were inversely proportional to age. The concentration and expression of HSP-70 were inversely proportional to age while HSP-90 had directly proportionality to age. The histological architecture also confirmed the faster rate of healing in 3-month old rats recorded in this study.This study indicates that HSP-70 and HSP-90 play different roles in age-related healing of gastric ulcers.

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF      XML