Nutritional Composition and Acute Toxicity Potentials of Archontophoenix tukeri and Adonidia merrilli Kernels


Bassey S. Antia, Emmanuel E. Essien*, Enobong D. Udonkanga

*Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Uyo 520101, Nigeria


Archontophoenix tukeri and Adonidia merrilli are exotic species widely grown in Nigeria as ornamental palms. In this study, the kernels of A. tukeri and A. merrilli were subjected to amino acids, fatty acids, proximate, anti-nutrients and mineral element analyses, in addition to acute toxicity evaluation. Glutamic acid (11.30 and 5.33 g/100 g) and leucine (5.9 and 4.2 g/100 g) were the most abundant essential and non-essential amino acids; the fatty acids profile revealed three major fatty acids: palmitic acid (20.14 and 11.27%), oleic acid (61.83 and 25.78%) and linoleic acid (13.05 and 55.26%); low linolenic acid levels were also observed (Ë‚1%) with 75.87 and 81.98% total unsaturated fatty acids in A. tukeri and A. merrilli respectively. Carbohydrate (85.73% and 90.15%) and oxalate contents (1927.2 and 2072.4 mg/100 g) were relatively high, while low levels of cyanide (12.05 and 65.45 mg/100 g), phytates (6.32 and 2.53 mg/100 g) and tannins (35.36 and 20.16 mg/100 g) were observed. A. tukeri indicated higher Ca, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mg, Mn and Na contents. The anti-nutrient-mineral ratios were computed and compared with critical values. Acute toxicity of A. tukeri and A. merrilli was 866.03 mg/Kg. These palms contain vital nutritional components, and with proper processing could serve as potential products for both human and animal nutrition.


Study Effect of Evening Primrose Oil Supplement on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Associated Metabolic Parameters 


Manal Khalid Abdulridha1Ù­, Mustafa Safaa Hussain2, Mahmood Shaker Khudhair3

 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy/College of Pharmacy/Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad-10001, Iraq

2AL-Kadhimiyah hospital, Ministry of health, Baghdad-10001, Iraq

3Consultant Endocrenologist, Department of Internal medicine /College of Medicine/Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad-10001, Iraq


Natural products are reported to be useful for controlling or preventing T2DM as an anti-inflammatory, AMPK activators, insulin secretion stimulators, alpha-glucosidase / disaccharidase or amylase inhibitors. Evening primrose oil (Oenothera biennis) is a substantial source of omega-6 essential fatty acids, mostly gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). The activity of Δ-6-desaturase enzyme responsible to convert linolenic acid (LA) to forms GLA is compromised in patients with type 2 diabetes. Accordingly, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of evening primrose oil in amelioration metabolic parameters of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Twenty six overweight or obese patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were enrolled. Thirteen patients received metformin 500 mg tablets twice daily alone (as a conventional therapy) for 3 month therapy, and 13 patients received metformin 500 mg plus evening primrose oil 2 gm capsule twice daily. Serum fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting serum insulin (FSI) was measured. Insulin resistance and β-cell function was determined by using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA).  There was statistically significant elevation in baseline level of fasting serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), fasting serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA- IR), and in both patient groups 1 and 2 compared to control subjects, (P< 0.001). High reduction in these parameters post treatment was found in both patient groups compared to pre treatment level, significantly with fasting serum insulin in group 2 patients (P< 0.001). Inversely, lower levels were seen in HDL-C, HOMA-B, significantly elevated post treatment in both groups. No difference was found in triglyceride and VLDL-C in both patient groups compared to control subjects, but significantly reduced post treatment.In conclusion, early intervention with natural oil rich in gamma linolenic acid with traditional hypoglycemic drugs can improve therapeutic outcome and represent a promising strategy to slow the progression of diabetes complications.


Phytoconstituents, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Livistona chinensis (Jacquin), Saribus rotundifolius (Lam.) Blume and Areca catechu Linnaeus Nuts


Emmanuel E. Essien*, Bassey S. Antia, Esangubong I. Etuk

 Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, 520101, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria


Livistona chinensis, Saribus rotundifolius and Areca catechu are palms primarily cultivated for ornamental purposes and also utilized in herbal remedies. The chemical and biological studies were conducted using standard procedures. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, terpenes, de-oxy sugars, anthraquinones, phenols, flavonoids and phlobatannins in varying amounts. The total phenolics content ranged from 52.0-245.0 mg/g, DPPH radical inhibition (87.30-90.55%, 2.0 mg/ml), iron chelating activity (27.3-65.0%, 0.5 mg/ml), hydrogen peroxide scavenging (93.18-98.46%, 0.5 mg/ml), and molybdate ion reduction capacity (15.93-58.30%, 0.5 mg/ml). L. chinensis extract showed notable antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans (MIC = 75-100 µg/ml) while A. catechu and S. rotundifolius extracts were potent against all test pathogens (75-100 µg/ml), except S. typhi (150 µg/ml). However, no appreciable cytotoxic effects on human cervical (HeLa), lung (H460), breast (MCF-7) and prostate (PC-3) cancer cells at 30 µg/mL was observed for the extracts. The notable antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the palm extracts are a function of their inherent bioactive constituents and a potential source of medicinally useful compounds. The chemical and biological assessment of S. rotundifolius palm nuts is reported for the first time.


Pharmacognostic and Preliminary Phytochemical Evaluation of Centipeda minima and Bauhinia purpurea Leaves 


Ashish Sarkar1*, Vijay Dutt Tripathi2, Ram Kumar Sahu3, Erwin Martinez Faller4

1Institute of Pharmacy, HCPG College, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

2Sagar Institute of Technology, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

3Columbia Institute of Pharmacy, Tekari, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India

4School of Pharmacy, Management & Science University, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia


Centipeda minima and Bauhinia purpurea are used as traditional medicinal plant for ailment of various diseases. The present study was aimed to evaluate the Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical screening ofCentipeda minima and Bauhinia purpurea. The Pharmacognostic evaluation (total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, water soluble extractive and alcohol soluble extractive) and fluorescence analysis of leaves powder were performed. Preliminary phytochemical investigation was carried out of the crude extracts of Centipeda minima and Bauhinia purpurea leaves using solvents of different polarity. The Pharmacognostic characters of Centipeda minima and Bauhinia purpurea have been done for standardization of crude drug. The results of preliminary phytochemical revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, glycosides, fats and carbohydrates in Centipeda minima and Bauhinia purpurea leaves.These studies provided referential information in regard to its identification parameters assumed significantly in the way of acceptability of herbal drugs in present scenario of lack of regulatory laws to control quality of herbal drugs.


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